Port Elizabeth of Yore: Would 1903 be a Reprise of 1902’s Great Gale?

As Port Elizabeth is prone to violent south-easter wind storms in the latter half of the year, optimism that there would not be a repeat of the 1902 disaster was profoundly misplaced. 

1903’s storm season would test whether the rescue services were adequately prepared when nature would once again do its damnedest. Timeless lessons would once again be learnt and relearnt. Would the authorities once again be assailed by a raft of criticism for their maladroit handling of the situation, be damned with faint praise or receive a chorus of approval?

Only time would tell.

Main picture: Rescuers go out on the line during the gale of November 1903

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: The Boer War Years

The Boer War, or as it now known, the South African War, might not have physically ravished the town, yet it did affect Port Elizabeth in so many other ways. The denial of the right to citizenship of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal Republic was the ostensible reason for the declaration of war by Paul Kruger on Britain on the 11th October 1899. Instead the underlying reason was a century of pent-up animosity between Boer and Brit. 

Main picture: No. 2 Remount Depot

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: Slaves

Whilst the Cape Colony might well have possessed slaves, the establishment of Port Elizabeth came at the culmination of the emancipation efforts by the British government. Hence the prevalence and practice of slavery was not of such great importance as it was closer to Cape Town. 

In 1807 the British government banned the slave trade to all her colonies, including the Cape. This meant that no more slaves (from any destination) could be sent to work in the Cape. However, those who were already in the Cape continued to work as slaves until 1834 when all slaves in the British Empire were to be emancipated. Many of the slaves chose to remain on with their owners while some started a new life in and around Cape Town working as tradesmen. Gradually these people became absorbed into the Cape community.

Main picture: The reality of slavery

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: The Bus Intrudes into the World of Trams

It was not that the bus was not available for use by 1913 in Port Elizabeth, but probably that the Tramways were myopically fixated on the tram as the primary mode of transport. The buses that they did possess, were instead used for excursions and not as an extension of their tram business. 

This was about to change. Given the buses flexibility regarding routes, they gave the Tramways a run for their money. Then the inevitable occurred. The Tramways adopted the motto, “If we cannot beat, join them.” 

Main picture: Trams at Humewood

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: The Early Years of Electric Trams

Far be it for me to belittle the contribution made by the horse drawn tram in the movement of residents within the town of 15,000 people, but they had severe limitations given the topography of the town. It was mere wishful thinking that this conveyance could ever service the hill area.

Progress was swift. In 1881, horse drawn trams were introduced and sixteen years later in 1897, electric trams made their appearance and by 1913 buses had been introduced, albeit initially for excursions. The latter two services progressed in tandem until the flexibility of routes without the need for tracks, predetermined that the bus would ultimately prevail.

Main picture: The scene at Market Square on 16th June 1897 when the electric tram system was officially opened

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: What Happened to the Rietbok?

On Monday 13th March 1967, a Vickers Viscount 818, on a scheduled fight from Port Elizabeth to Johannesburg, via East London and Bloemfontein, crashed into the sea somewhere off Kayser’s Beach, near East London. 

What train of events was the cause of this crash? Why did twenty passengers and five crew vanish without a trace?

Main picture: Vickers Viscount 818

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: Concentration Camps during the Boer War

During the latter stages of the Boer War and the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, the fighting devolved into a guerrilla war with the open veldt and the scattered Boer farmhouses providing the logistics system. In order to sever this supply line, the farm houses were torched, and the animals slaughtered, in terms of the Scorched Earth policy, while the wives and children were placed in concentration camps. Without this sustenance, all the Boer forces apart from the bitter einders opted to surrender.

Main picture: Memorial at the North End Cemetery to those who died at PE’s Concentration Camp

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: Airfields, Airports & Aerodromes

During the age of biplanes, aerodromes, airfields and airports were intimate places where family and their friends could view the passengers boarding while standing beside the plane. Today their signature features are formality, impersonality and huge scale, the very antithesis of the personal touch. This impersonality is exacerbated by the hub-and-spoke approach of air flight today.

Without radar, navigational aids and concrete runways, these aerodromes served these fragile midget planes.

Main picture: Avro Anson F1 1143 based at 42 Air School

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Collegiate School: The War Years

It was not only during the six long years of WW2 that the “routine and normal” had all but disappeared, but also thereafter, with its continuing shortages and years of hardship. What the war years did engender, was a sense of connectedness, solidarity and responsibility. It was this civic mindedness which drove the community to surmount these challenges. 

How did those years, fraught with possible dangers, or loss of a brother, father or even uncle in the crucible of war up north, as it was euphemistically referred to, affect one school at the heart of the community in Port Elizabeth?

 Main picture: Senior Collegiate Girls School, Bird Street, May 1924

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Port Elizabeth of Yore: The Era of Coaches

Prior to the advent of the railways, long distance travel was arduous at best and tediously long to boot. Imagine being jolted for days on end on an ox-wagon. Every single depression, or stone protruding from the ground along the way, would be felt. Unlike Europe, the Romans had never constructed roads. In the Cape Colony, bush tracks ultimately became the “roads” through usage and not by design.

 

After the age of the post cart came the coaches, an imported concept from the American Wild West.

 

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Travelling time

Aside from modern mythology, what was travelling between Port Elizabeth and Grahamstown in an ox-wagon really like. In these slow-moving conveyances, this journey would take a week. At night, the passengers would be compelled to sleep on the hard, unforgiving, stony ground. Mothers would be under duress attempting to pacify sick children and comfort small bored kids. Meals en route were extremely problematical. Without refrigeration, no fresh products could be taken with them.

 

The advent of the post cart reduced the travelling time from a week to two days while the introduction of coaches shortened it to one day.

 

A South African attempt at coach design

The first coach made in the Eastern Province was manufactured in Grahamstown, but, perhaps one of the strangest vehicles to make its appearance on the Old Bay Road, was the one known as Judge Dewar’s coach.

 

In August 1873, the whole of the circuit transport equipage, used by the judges of the Eastern District Court, was sold. This, no doubt, prompted the judge to have a coach constructed to his own design by Messrs, Robertson & Douglas of Long Street, Cape Town. When the coach arrived at Algoa Bay, it was described as the “most singular vehicle ever to be imported into the Eastern Province” and was referred to as the “judge’s contraption.”

 

The front of the vehicle was fitted with seats and a folding hood and had all the appearance of an ordinary cart. The remainder looked like a cart but was provided with a detachable cover, constructed so that, when put in place, it could be locked as if it were a strongbox.

 

At the back was a seat, like that on a dog-cart, where the servants could be placed out of earshot of the conversation carried on by those in front. The coaches, when they arrived on the old Bay Road, had much to contend with due to the state of the roads. In 1863, the Cape Argus reported that the roads in the Eastern Province were the worst to be found in any country in the world. “The cost and difficulty of making a main line of road between the two towns (Grahamstown and Port Elizabeth), 60 miles apart, must be very great, and it puzzles one to imagine how eastern flesh and blood can stand the ups and downs, the jolts and capsizes, to which travelling humanity in that province is liable.”

 

Mule wagon service to the Diamond Fields

The discovery of diamonds at Kimberley was the first of the discoveries inland which would ultimately displace Port Elizabeth economically. On the 26th July 1871, Tarry’s mule wagon service to the Diamond Fields using 12 mules was commenced, leaving Market Square with John. H. Boys as the conductor. The wagon finally arrived at Du Toit’s Pan on the 8th July after a journey time of fifteen days. The fare amounted to £8.

 

In their day, coaches were equally important in the development of the country, and they were the principal means of transport for the thousands of emigrants, who had landed at Port Elizabeth to join the diamond rush. In the heyday of the new diamond diggings in the 1870s, coach and conveyance companies were formed all over the Colony. Apart from Tarry’s 12-mule carts from Port Elizabeth, there were the Port Elizabeth and Diamond Fields Conveyance Company, Queenstown and Vaal River Diamond Fields Passenger Company, and even the Graaff-Reiner Road Steamer Company.

 

Road Steamer

Of these, perhaps the most innovative was the Graaff-Reiner Road Steamer Company, which with a capital of R 4000, proposed to import from England one of Thompson’s 8 h.p. road steamers. The contraption, it was claimed, was capable of drawing a load of 12 tons, which was equivalent to three ordinary wagon-loads, by easy stages of 30 miles per day.

 

Cobb and Company

Of all of these conveyance and coach companies perhaps the greatest was Cobb and Company, of Port Elizabeth. Towards the end of October 1871, two Americans from Boston, Messrs Cobb and Cole arrived at Port Elizabeth with the object of establishing a line of mail coaches from the coast to the diamond fields and to any other towns where the trade warranted it. To this end, they imported 16 stage coaches.

 

The coaches ordered varied in size and were constructed to carry six to twelve passengers with a fair allowance for luggage. Cobb and Cole, however, never got going, and before the end of the year all of their coaches were purchased by a joint stock company of Port Elizabeth merchants and thereafter operated as Cobb and Company.

 

Cobbs coaches were of American manufacture. Instead of being fitted with the type of steel spring then commonly in use, they were suspended on their “chassis” by several thicknesses of leather bands on each side. The slightest motion caused the vehicle to sway fore and aft, thereby imparting a “soft gliding motion.” Padded seats were provided and the space between the seats was ample. Passengers could also be seated outside on top of the coach, and a luggage carrier was fitted at the rear.

 

The directors of the company were Messrs Macdonald, Hume, Christian, Taylor and Griffiths. The first two coaches left Market Square on the 22nd September 1971 on a trial trip to Kimberley. The coach-and-six and the coach-and-four were driven by Cobb and Cole themselves. Having made a fortune in Australia and then returning to his home town in Brewster, Massachusetts, Cobb relocated to Port Elizabeth where he formed a partnership with fellow American, Charles Carlos Cole and raised £10,000 in capital from local businessmen

 

The first coaches started running to the north by way of the Zuurberg commencing on the 4th March, 1872. Others took the route to the diamond fields up the Old Bay Road to Grahamstown and to Queenstown.

 

Many passengers, however, did not agree with the newspapers’ glowing accounts of the coaches. One described his experience in the vehicle “misnamed a coach” and in which he was trundled over the 86 miles in 17 hours from Port Elizabeth to Grahamstown as follows: “There were nine passengers cooped up within a longitudinal box, closed not entirely overhead, but in front and behind, and one might say almost entirely around. We were deafened with the noise of the rattling, clattering, lumbering affair, to an extent [that] not one of the nine had ever experienced before.” Another complained that the “capsizing” accidents, which frequently occurred with Cobb  and Company’s coaches, were raised by passengers carried outside which made the coaches top-heavy.

 

Cobb and Company reached its peak towards the end of 1873. In September, R24 was charged for the single journey to the diamond fields, which was accomplished in six days. Five of the company’s coaches arrived almost together at Grahamstown one day that month. Three were from Port Elizabeth on their way to the Diamond Fields, one was the regular Port Elizabeth to Grahamstown coach and one was the “down” coach from the fields to the Bay.

 

Toward the end of 1874, Cobb and Company ran into financial difficulties because of the prevailing drought, the high cost of forage on the route and the high death rate among the horses. In 1875, Mr Carlton Jones was appointed sole liquidator of the company’s affairs and offered all its equipment for sale. For two years, Cobb continued on his own. Adam White Guthrie was associated with him and took over some of the stock after Cobb’s premature death.

 

The Port Elizabeth and Diamond Fields Conveyance Co. Ltd

The Port Elizabeth and Diamond Fields Conveyance Co. Ltd, held its first annual general meeting in February 1873. From the outset, this company experienced many difficulties, especially during the first six months when it was working up its “trains” to the required standard of efficiency. In the first eight months, thirteen trains were despatched to the north, and in the following four months, fourteen trains. A weekly service was then started. In the first period, R 6327 was lost but in the secind, a profit of R 1834 was made. Mr Thomas Griffiths was chairman of the company and Messrs J.S. Kirkwood and G.M. Farnier, directors.

 

A journey to Uitenhage recalled

Unlike today, a trip to Uitenhage would not take twenty to thirty minutes. Instead it would take three hours to complete. Another difference was that travellers and visitors would not own their own conveyance. Instead, invariably they used hired conveyances from one of the various livery stables in the town. One of the best patronised businesses was that Mr Rishworth in Jetty Street.

 

Yet another option was to use the post cart service which ran daily between both towns. Despite their nomenclature, they were also used to convey passengers.

 

The first passenger service was an “omnibus” owned by Japie Kaafar who was also the driver. Eventually the word “omnibus” being Latin “for all” would be abbreviated to contemporary word bus. Every week the coach left the Post Office in Market Square at 2 p.m. taking three hours to complete the journey which included a 15-minute stop at Innis Vale, the half-way point of the trip. The fare was six shillings single.

 

An old battered bugle is sounded, and the coach moves across the Market Square into Main Street. Along Queen Street, Princess Street and Adderley, the horses steadily trotted until it reached the split into Grahamstown and Uitenhage Roads. Shortly thereafter, the outskirts of town were reached, and houses were now only passed intermittently. The next landmark was the “Jim Crow” Inn located at the current Berry’s Corner. The erstwhile residence on John Centlivres Chase then appeared on the left. Some of the elderly would still refer to this homestead by its original name Papenkuils Fontein.

 

Over the next rise, the historic settlement of Bethelsdorp came into view nestled within a swathe of salt pans. Scattered around were spacious wooden stores and humble cottages. This quaint outpost wore a patina of age with equanimity and dignity. Some travellers might have even met the eccentric septuagenarian. Dr Vanderkemp and his thirteen-year-old wife, a former slave.

 

Further on, the half-way house, “Innis Vale” loomed into view. The passengers eagerly disembarked in order to stretch their legs and partake of some welcome refreshments. Then the shrill note of Kafaar’s bugle announced that the passengers must board the coach.

 

The upper Zwartkops is then negotiated and the horses are given a respite at the old Toll House to blow. It was then the final run into the straggling village of Uitenhage.

 

Scattered sparks of dying embers

Even before Cobb’s coaches commenced operation in September 1871, the ultimate nemesis of the previous forms of transport, had already made its appearance, and would eventually eclipse them in totality. It was during May 1871 that the Port Elizabeth and Uitenhage Railway Company was formed. In fact, this meeting had been preceded by D. MacDonald and F.M. Pfeil surveying the line by 1866.

 

The first meeting of shareholders was held on the 1st November 1871 and on 9th January 1872, the Governor, Sir Henry Barkly, turned the first sod at Zwartkops. From July 1871, the Engineer in charge was James Bisset, also known as an architect who designed the original station in 1873. The first train ran on the line on 16th October 1873 and the official opening of the completed line took place on 21st September 1875. Also, in 1875, the Cape Government took control of the railway line by purchasing the Company.

 

The mists of time

As the line was extended, ultimately all the way to the Diamond Fields, the age of the conveyancers whether utilising ox-wagons, post carts or coaches, drew to a close.

 

Now largely unknown, the era of the coach was an interregnum between the ox-wagon and the railway carriage. In all aspects, the railway was superior – speed, comfort and quantity conveyed. Without being mourned, the older modes of transport passed into history with no melancholy eulogy to mark their demise.

 

 

Sources

Coaching Days on Old Bay Road by Eric Turpin in the Herald Monday 14th December 1964

Port Elizabeth: A Social Chronicle to the end of 1945 by Margaret Harradine (2004, Historical Society of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth)

Port Elizabeth in Bygone Days by J.J. Redgrave (1947, Rustica Press)