all the ships which were wrecked along the Port Elizabeth and adjacent
coastline, only two were noteworthy but for different reasons. Of the two, the
saga of the Sacramento’s sinking on 30 June 1647 culminated in two
stirring tales. One involved the dramatic 1400km trek by the survivors to the
Portuguese Port at Delagoa Bay. The second and equally dramatic tale is that of
the subsequent discovery and recovery of the numerous cannons by a local diver,
make for compelling stories but as this is a potted history of Port Elizabeth,
the focus will be fixed on the latter escapade.
Main picture: David Allen-left-with Gerry van Niekerk making notes of the most perfectly presevered of the 40 guns lifted from the wreck site.
The lack of street lighting
in the pre-electricity era must have made walking outdoors at night
particularly dangerous. If nothing else, this factor must have induced the Town
Council to expedite the installation of street lighting as the technology enabled
this feature. Furthermore commerce and industry required electricity to operate
all manner of equipment, apparatuses and appliances which the use of electrical
To do so, Port Elizabeth
would ultimately require its own generating equipment which in turn would
require it to import coal.
To say that the
introduction of electricity would fundamentally change society was a gross understatement.
It would transform society in ways which were unthinkable previously. Apart
from facilitating nocturnal social intercourse, it would also facilitate the
introduction of shift work in industry.
Main picture: Installing overhead electricity cables
The renowned economist John Maynard Keynes once famously exclaimed that “The
difficulty lies not so much in developing new ideas as in escaping from old
ones”. Whilst that might have been true in most instances, it is
doubtful whether anybody except the most curmudgeonly would have objected to this
innovation. But who knows? Progress always has its naysayers. Perhaps others ignored
it as being fatuous!
Main picture: Steam roller on the opening of Albany Road. The prominent building on the hill is the Erica School for Girls, designed by architect William White Cooper and opened on 4 November 1903.
seeks freedom and the best for themselves and their children. It is an innate
urge. By now the dismal track record of politically motivated false choices
should have been exposed as a chimera. So it was for Korsten. Instead of
readily agreeing to their being relocated to the new “model township” of New
Brighton, the black residents of the inner-city locations defied the
authorities and moved to an unserviced area outside the municipal boundaries
roots are nourished by the natural human desire for freedom.
Main picture: Elkana Street, a respectable area in Korsten where children play happily in the street
Enter left – Frederick Korsten
The earliest recorded occupation of the land, now known as Korsten and the surrounding suburbs was by Frederick Korsten, a Dutch Settler who
acquired the land known as Papenkuilsfontein between Port Elizabeth and
Uitenhage and renamed it Cradock Place in 1812, after his friend, Governor Sir
John Cradock. The initial reason for the establishment of this enterprise was
to supply salted beef to British troops stationed on Mauritius. From this Korsten
diversified into whaling and he also set up a trading station. Subsequent to
the arrival of the Settlers, Korsten retired to Cape Town but returned in 1836
to live there until his death in 1839.
The property was divided into 236 plots and sold off on the
condition that the name of Korsten be retained. The current spatial layout of
Korsten is still largely based on these plots. The current structures of
Cradock Place are ruins in the open veld alongside the Uitenhage Road. The Cradock
Place farm would have covered areas now known as Korsten and Young Park and
Korsten initially consisted of privately-owned land to the
north of Port Elizabeth, which had been laid out as a potential village from
1853, once the farm of Cradock Place had been divided into plots. Initially it
was not a success given that the local black population were housed in
locations close to the inner city. The first location to be established was
Stranger’s Location at the top of Russell Road. At a later stage, Gubb’s Location
was established in Mill Park and Cooper’s Kloof served as an overflow facility
of Stranger’s Location.
In 1883 the Town Council passed the Native Stranger’s Location
Act, with the intention of removing those living in this area to the more
remote ‘Reservoir Location’. This move faced resistance and was never enforced,
but it did set the scene for deliberate, planned, race-based developments that
would culminate in the growth of Korsten and the establishment of New Brighton,
Port Elizabeth’s first formal Black township.
A significant event in the segregation of Port Elizabeth
was the outbreak of Bubonic Plague at the turn of the 20th century.
This resulted in the demolition of the inner city ‘locations’ and the forced
removal of inhabitants to the perimeter of the city, the reason being concerns
about sanitation. This disease gave impetus for the removal of the residents of
these locations to New Brighton and the demolition of the informal structures
The history of Korsten and New Brighton are intertwined because
both arose, New Brighton formally and Korsten informally, due to the closure of
the inner-city Locations. At its root was the Native Reserve Locations Act of
1902 (largely a re-enactment of the 1883 Native Stranger’s Location Act), ‘an
experiment in social control which, it was hoped, would help solve the problem
of regulating African labour in urban centres’. Essentially, Korsten and
New Brighton were both intended as dormitory areas on the outskirts of the town
from which labour could be drawn. In their nature, however, they were quite
different. There was very little growth there until 1901, when the removal of
inner city ‘locations’ (including
Stranger’s Location) was intensified. At this stage, those who were being
removed essentially had two options: to be settled in the newly created New
Brighton township or to go to Korsten. They ‘headed straight to Korsten,
avoiding New Brighton at any cost’. Korsten was favoured because it was
outside the town limits and the authority of Port Elizabeth and, although colonial
law was applicable, it was practically unenforceable. There were also increased
business opportunities and opportunities for land ownership. This resistance by
Black families to being resettled in the model township of New Brighton endured
until the 1930s.
Being a township established in terms of the ‘new model
township’ principal, the layout of New Brighton reflects a formal grid of streets
whereas Korsten Village, as it was called, displays a more varied structure. The
village is divided into three distinct parts. The first, the northern section,
centred on the development of the road north west to Uitenhage, now called
Commercial Road and the suburb renamed Sidwell. The second part, spatially
central to the village, was set out in a radial oval pattern centred on a lake.
This area was a dense residential area known as ‘Village Board’, which was
declared an industrial area in the 1960s. Its residents were forcibly removed,
houses demolished, and the lake drained. It is today partially redeveloped as
an industrial area known formally as ‘Ferguson’.
The roots of each township are also reflected in the contrasting
physical aspects of Korsten and New Brighton. Korsten was a haphazard
settlement in which homes were created primarily from temporary materials and
most had no running water or sewerage. Because they were outside the boundaries
of Port Elizabeth, the authorities had little control over land use and
movement. At one stage, 1 680 of the dwellings were declared unfit by the
plague board. ‘Unfortunately, a native free state has grown up outside the
Municipal boundaries at Korsten … [which] is practically under no supervision.
The lazy, dissolute natives live at these locations in happy content,’ bemoaned
the Medical Officer of Health of the Cape of Good Hope.
On the other hand, New Brighton was a highly controlled
residential suburb even further to the north, separated from Korsten and the
town itself by a wide wetland area. Business
was highly regulated and property ownership impossible. Rentals in New Brighton
were also notably higher than those in Korsten. The unregulated state of
Korsten has led to a perception that the Korsten of the early 20th century
was a ‘slum’ and was solely intended for those who were not White.
After the Anglo Boer War, Port Elizabeth witnessed a steady
influx of poor destitute whites from the platteland. Many of them erected
their homes in Korsten, because it was cheaper to do so. But Korsten was in
fact one big slum … the health conditions were shocking. It was seen as a
menace to the health of Port Elizabeth.
With the northern portion being declared an industrial area
and the black residents being relocated northwards, only the rump of Korsten remains
as a residential area. This portion comprises a grid of three long parallel streets
running approximately south-east to north-west – Stanford Road, Durban and
Highfield Roads, with a number of cross streets. It is this are that is now
officially identified as Korsten by authorities and citizens.
Today the residential area of Korsten occupies a relatively small geographical area, two kilometres long and 300 metres wide. Its north-west end would historically have been at the edge of the town. Over time, the whites were rehoused in Young Park and Algoa Park and the Blacks to the north.
Ordinance No. 3 of 1931, extending the boundaries of Port Elizabeth to include Korsten,
Zwartkops Village, Deal Party Estate, Fairview Township, was
promulgated. Removal of the anomaly in the boundaries
and property ownership was forever discarded, dooming Korsten to forfeit its
moniker as ‘Korsten Village’ or ‘Free Town’. Forever would it have to comply
with the dictates of the Council.
Lorimer in her book Panorama of Port Elizabeth concludes
that ‘the name of Korsten survives in Port Elizabeth only as that of a slum
suburb – poor recognition for a man who was the founder of its commercial
and Heritage in Korsten, Port Elizabeth, 1956 to 1990 by Bryan Wintermeyer mini-dissertation
presented in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Philosophy in
Conservation of the Built Environment in the School of Architecture, Planning
and Geomatics – June 2015
In a manner of speaking, the
salt pans which span over the northern areas of Port Elizabeth, are its mineral
wealth. Unlike the mines in the north, their minerals are easy to extract
without expensive machinery or underground excavations. Furthermore their
lifespan is measured in millennia and not decades.
It is thought that in all
likelihood, these salt pans have been used for millennia but not on an
organised basis by the local Khoikhoi. The saline deposits of this
district have long been famous, but until the arrival of the settlers, there had
been no attempt at systematic development. It was the
entrepreneurial spirits of the settlers that turned this untapped resource into
an asset for the area.
Balfour Turton Dix-Peek
(1868-1932) was one of the sons of my maternal great-great grandfather, George
Dix-Peek, thus making him my second great uncle. In these letters by Arthur to his great-niece Anita,
(and thus a cousin of mine) in 1931 and 1932, he elaborates what life was like
in Port Elizabeth during the 1870s i.e. when he was very young
The morning of the Thursday 24th December 1931
was not unlike any other Christmas Eve. Whether those passengers crammed into
buses and trams had already completed their Christmas shopping, this was a day
when many residents of Port Elizabeth would make that trip to Main Street to
experience the thrill and excitement of this special day.
Instead many would witness a tragedy which would blunt
their enthusiasm and joy over the festive season.
Main picture: St Mary’s Church in 1931 showing the business on Main Street being demolished
Even though farmers had been living in the area since 1776, the tiny settlement of Bethelsdorp, nestled on a hillside 10km north -west of Port Elizabeth, near the Little Swartkops River, was Port Elizabeth’s first organised settlement. Founded in 1803 by a missionary from the London Missionary Society, Dr Johannes Theodorus van der Kemp, and assisted by the Rev James Read, the settlement became a catalyst for racial conflict. Bethelsdorp is the site of the oldest London Missionary Society (LMS) station in South Africa and today it forms part of Port Elizabeth.
Main picture:A fanciful view of Bethelsdorp with van der Kemp Kloof in the background
It is safe to say that South Africa was one of the foremost exponents of ultra-marathon running events in the 20th century. What is more amazing is that South Africa produced a mindset where the most non-athletic citizen could participate in events that were clearly in the domain of the specialist ultra-marathon runner. Yet they would participate. This situation occurred as a result of the conflation of two events; firstly the creation of the Comrades Marathon commencing in 1921 and then later in the century with South Africa’s exclusion from participation in international sport.
Just as important was the calibre of the athletes produced in South Africa starting with Arthur Newton, then succeeded by Wally Hayward, Jackie Mekler and finally Bruce Fordyce, the doyen of road runners.
Under normal circumstances, trials are usually only
undertaken to determine who should be selected to attend a future event. In
this case, however, it was much more significant in that this race witnessed
the passing of the baton by Wally Hayward and the birth of a new star: Jackie
Main picture:Jackie Mekler coming 2nd to Wally Hayward in Hyde Park in the record breaking 100 mile race from Box in Wiltshire to London in 1953
Mekler’s early life
Mekler did not have an easy upbringing. His parents had
emigrated from Eastern Europe in the late 1920s with little more than the clothes
on their backs. They struggled to survive financially. Initially the family
stayed with friends in Bertrams, Joburg, then upgraded to rented accommodation
in the same suburb and finally purchasing a house in Bertrams. Mekler’s mother
was a trained nurse and his father earned a living hawking fruit from the back
of a horse-drawn cart.
Mekler’s mother developed Parkinson’s disease at a young age, growing increasingly incapacitated by this debilitating disease. She spent long periods convalescing at home and at the Otto Beit Nursing Home. Due to his father’s long working hours, he was unable to raise Jackie and his elder sister Hannah, resulting in their being placed in a home.
As can be imagined, this separation from his family made a
huge impact on the young Jackie Mekler, who increasingly sought solace in his
own company and running. It swiftly dawned on him, that he had a natural talent
for long distance running. He might not have had the turn of speed as his
peers, but he possessed the stamina to run extremely long distances without
being subject to the same stress, tiredness and loss of vigour.
This ability to train
at weekly distances of greater than 150 miles would prepare his body for the
greatest tests of endurance: The Comrades and the London to Brighton Marathons.
The Wally Hayward era
Wally Hayward won the Comrades Marathon for the
first time on his first attempt in 1930 at the age of 21. It would take another
twenty years before he competed again. Surprisingly he won that year and the
subsequent three years from 1951 to 1954, except for 1952 when he chose to
rather represent South Africa at
the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. He finished tenth in the Olympic marathon event. In 1951 and 1953 (first athlete under
6 hours) he broke the down-run record, and in 1954 he broke the up-run record
and became the oldest man to win the race at age 45 (later overtaken by the
Russian, Vladimir Kotov, in
In 1988 he returned once again
to participate. He beat half the finishers with a time of 9h44m. Wally’s most
dramatic moment came the following year, in 1989, when he completed the down
run at the age of 80. There was hardly a dry eye in the stadium as he staggered
across the line in an obviously distressed state, making the cut-off time by a
mere 1min 57sec, after which he finally quit the race for good. To this day, he
has the distinction in the record books of being the oldest finisher in the
history of the Comrades Marathon.
Rise of Jackie Mekler
Hayward and Mekler were teammates at Germiston Callies
Athletic Club. In that era, this running club possessed one of the finest minds
on all aspects of running; Fred Morrison. With little scientific knowledge but
a curious mind at his disposal, he provided dollops of useful advice to the
fellow members. What was little appreciated at that time was that the human
body was not a machine and required rest as much, if not in greater measure,
than hard training. On the 9th May 1954, Jackie Mekler won the 56km
Pieter Korkie ultramarathon which was hosted by Germiston Callies. Three weeks
later, on the 31st May 1954, would be the Empire Games Trials
Marathon Trails in Port Elizabeth
These are Jackie Mekler’s recollections of this titanic
battle of wills: the middle-aged Hayward and the aspiring Comrades winner, the 22-year-old
Mekler describes this race as follows:
“The trials in Port Elizabeth were now three weeks away.
It was likely to become a battle between [Jan] Barnard, [Wally] Hayward and myself
as favourites. But there were many other talented hopefuls in the race,
including Gerald Walsh, Mercer Davies, Piet Kriel and Jackie Goldie. We
travelled down to Port Elizabeth by train. As the train pulled into the Port
Elizabeth station, I noticed that all the trees were growing at an angle thanks
to the prevailing strong coastal winds. Port Elizabeth is known as the Friendly
City but also the Windy City.
On the evening before the race, the wind started blowing
as only it can at the coast. When we went to bed the windows were rattling,
banging and thudding, noise that continued throughout the night. I knew that we
could not expect a calm day on the following morning.
It will still dark and the wind still howling when the
race started at 7am. We started at Newton Park and went out around Greenbushes
Hotel, Cows Corner, Linga Longa, back to Crossroads and then back to the
The first eight miles were straight, head-on into the
wind. Wally, who was short on natural speed and whose age was against him, realised
that he had to win the race in order to gain selection. He therefore had no alternative
but to force the pace from the start. This was in any case his normal style.
Both Jan [Barnard] and I had the speed to beat him in a
fast finish, so Barnard tucked in behind Wally, effectively shielding himself
from the wind. I felt sorry for Wally, so I purposely moved out alongside him
so as not to gain an unfair advantage. These were perfectly legitimate tactics
by Barnard, but I could not in all fairness do the same.
We ran like this for the first 11 miles [17 kms], which
was mainly uphill. Shortly after that I decided to push the pace and moved into
the lead. I hung onto this lead for a mile until Jan came shooting past saying,
‘OK Jackie. Let’s go now’. This remark left me puzzled. Was he inviting me to
join him in pushing the pace or was this a challenge for me to try and keep up
with him? Whatever it was, his pace was too fast, and he gradually opened up a
lead on the downhill stretch.
We were now turning for home. The rest of the course was
fast and mainly downhill with the wind behind us. The weather had improved, and
I needed only one sip of tea at 19 miles and a couple of sponges. Barnard drew
steadily ahead and try as I might, I was unable to hold him. This was the type
of course that suited Jan and he took full advantage of it.
He finished in 2:25:31, the fastest time ever run in
South Africa and the first time that 2:30 had ever been broken by a South
African. I finished second in 2:28:57 as inside the existing record of 2:30:45
set up by the late Jackie Gibson in 1927. Gerald Walsh was 3rd in
2:31, Wally 4th and Jackie Goldie 6th in 2:40:40.
Mekler did not know it yet but from now onwards the South
African running hero, Wally Hayward, would forever be behind him instead of
being in his sights.
The Empire Games Marathon Trials in Port Elizabeth represented
the swansong of the Hayward era and the dawn of the Mekler era of long distance
running in South Africa.
Events after the Trials
Later that evening the athletics team for the Empire Games
in Vancouver was announced. Jan Barnard and Jackie Mekler were selected for the
Marathon. Jackie had made the breakthrough at the tender age of 22, normally
regarded as too young for marathon running. Jackie’s development and
improvement over the previous two years had been phenomenal.
Even though the Empire Games were some 10 weeks away on the
7th August 1954, Mekler even seriously considered running the
Comrades being held on the 12th June that year. Fortunately the
athletics authorities got wind of this plan and swiftly nipped it in the bud.
It was just as well. It was speed that Mekler needed and not distance work
It was now Wally’s swansong. Having missed out on the Empire Games, he made his mark on the Comrades that year by smashing Hardy Ballington’s up record in the 1954 Comrades in 6:12:55. In spite of this achievement, Wally nevertheless ran a superb 100 miles from Standerton to Germiston in 13:08:05 in freezing cold weather.
During his running career, Mekler would win
the Comrades Marathon five
times as well as various other marathons around the world. He competed for South Africa in various international games. A 25km
Jackie Mekler race is held annually in Gauteng in his honour.
Jackie Mekler died in Cape Town on 1st July
2019, when he was 87 years old.
Alone by Jackie Mekler (2019, Quickfox Publishing, Cape Town)
Sporting-wise, Port Elizabeth has achieved a number of
firsts as many of the sporting codes have their roots in St George’s Park.
Amongst the firsts were the first international cricket test between South
Africa and England, South Africa’s first rugby test and South Africa’s first
Of all the firsts that Port Elizabeth failed to achieve was being the first tennis club to be formed in South Africa but it only missed this honour narrowly.
Main picture: SA Lawn Tennis Championships, 1893.
Court No. 1 – Port Elizabeth Lawn Tennis Club.