Port Elizabeth of Yore: Capt. Francis Evatt: Father of the Town

Regardless of how and why Captain Evatt came to be  stationed there, his civic-minded mien ensured that he would forever be feted as the “Father of Port Elizabeth.”  For that reason he deserves to be recalled and commemorated.

 Main picture: Captain Francis Evatt

Pre-Port Elizabeth days
Francis was of Irish descent having been born at Carlow, Ireland in 1770. As his father, Captain Henry Evatt, had a military background, being a member of the Monaghan Militia, perhaps Francis was destined himself to join the military. Francis’s father was fatally wounded in the Battle of Ballinahinch in County Antrim, Ireland, during the rebellion of 1798.

Not that his father’s death in battle would have persuaded Francis to abandon his chosen career, as by then he was already a committed soldier. Even though no record exists of when Francis joined the 21st Light Dragoons, it was probably in early 1792 at the age of 22 as his military service was recorded as having spanned 56 years. It was as a Lieutenant in this Regiment that Evatt arrived at the Cape in 1806. He would be dispatched, together with his brother, to the frontier for several years.

21st Light Dragoon Officer

Arrival in Port Elizabeth
The first reference to Francis being in Port Elizabeth was his arrival on the 20th January 1810 aboard the Oxford, together with a company of his Regiment, the 21st Light Dragoons. The troops had been sent in response to an urgent appeal by the Landdrost Major Cuyler to Lord Caledon. He requested assistance on account of the increasing depredations of the Xhosa tribes.

The greatest part of this force was dispatched to Bruintjieshoogte, a mountain pass situated in the Eastern Cape, on the current regional road R63 between Somerset East and Pearston. Meanwhile Captain Evatt and thirty-five men of a Cape regiment made a tour through the Coega and Zandfontein districts. Afterwards he proceeded to Bruintjieshoogte in order to rejoin his own regiment. Furthermore as he wished to obtain an understanding of the surrounding countryside, he later journeyed along the Fish River to the Zuurveld. Unlike the areas to the west, it was not drab and unexciting. What this diversion did illustrate was that Evatt would go the extra mile when defining his responsibilities.

Between 1810 and 1817, Evatt was posted to various remote parts of the Colony. Evatt’s promotion to Captain occurred on the 25th March 1813 when he accepted a transfer to the Royal Garrison Company as Captain, the rank at which he would remain until his retirement. Finally Evatt’s stay in the loneliest parts of the hinterland came to an end when he was appointed as Resident Commandant at Fort Frederick in 1817 as this appointment entailed his confinement at Ford Frederick and environs. With this appointment came a meagre salary of £60 per annum. He held this post until 1848, two years before his death in 1850. Evatt arrived with his young wife whom he had married in 1811, when she was only seventeen years old, Elizabeth Frederica Petronella Kirsten.

Assisting the Settlers
Aside from his formal military responsibilities, Evatt saw fit to get involved in numerous civic duties, the first of which was with the landing of the 1820 Settlers. He directed their disembarkation through the dangerous surf by personally wading into the breakers to pick up passengers being ferried to the shore. Evatt and his men carried the arrivees on their shoulders from the flat-bottomed surf boats through the breakers to the shore. Even Evatt’s wife assisted the settlers, by providing a hot beverage to the weary travellers at their small cottage. Thomas Philippe, a settler, later recalled that Evatt had even sanctioned the use of the Fort as a pen for his sheep.

Amongst the initial band of settlers, was John Centlivres Chase, who recalled at a commemorative function some 24 years later having his first meal in Africa gratis, courtesy of Francis Evatt’s generosity. This display of hospitality was not an isolated occurrence. Rather it was the nature of the man; he seemed to be the very embodiment of graciousness.

While the Settlers were awaiting ox wagons to ferry them to their new homes, Evatt organised two-day trips to a country cottage at Chelsea Estate on the Old Seaview Road This estate had been granted for the use of the officers at the Fort in 1815. Their hostess was Mrs Evatt. Sophie Pigot reported that Mrs Evatt possessed “two pet bluebucks – a now extinct species of antelope – scarcely taller than a hare, with small horns, that leapt onto the sofa, and lay there, perfectly tame, and each had a coloured ribbon around its neck.”

View of Chelsea by Walford Arbouin Harries in 1855

Proposals regarding a school and a church
To Evatt’s abiding credit, he prominently identified with the development of civic and religious life in Port Elizabeth. At a meeting on the 20th April, 1824, Evatt chaired a meeting held in the Red Lion Tavern in Evatt Street. Under consideration was the proposal to lobby the Cape Government to fund the establishment of a school and a church in Port Elizabeth. One of the resolutions of this meeting conveyed thanks to Francis Evatt for his “zeal and perseverance in promoting an object so greatly to be desired by the inhabitants of the village and the neighbourhood.”

Red Lion Tavern in Evatt Street in 1885 on the right of Thomas Kinna’s house used as a general dealer

In reply, the Governor promised a school but resisted committing to the building of a church as he claimed that no funds were available. At a further meeting held on the 26th April, it was resolved that a subscription be entered into immediately to fund the construction of a church. Evatt concluded the meeting by heading the list of subscribers with a donation of RxD100, an amount equivalent to his monthly salary. In total, money and materials to the value of RxD 2052 were donated.

Appointment as the ‘Government Resident’
By 1825, the Cape Government did not make a misguided assessment of Port Elizabeth’s surging importance vis-à-vis Uitenhage. Up until this time, Port Elizabeth fell under the magistracy of Uitenhage which was initially the main town in the area. It dawned on the Colonial government that some higher official power than a field cornet was absolutely essential for Port Elizabeth due to its rapid expansion.

Entrance to Fort Frederick

In a proclamation dated 8th April 1825, Port Elizabeth became a seat of magistracy and Captain Evatt was awarded the title of “Government Resident of Port Elizabeth”  with magisterial powers at a salary of £90 per annum. In effect, Evatt had been appointed as a Magistrate with Montagu Augustine Armstrong as Secretary. In the case of civil matters, the Magistrate could try cases under the value of £7 10s and in criminal cases his authority only extended to sentences of six months’ imprisonment or to the issuing of a fine limited to £7 10s. The jurisdiction of the Magistrate was limited to townships.

Letter sent by Henry Lovemore to Capt. Francis Evatt at Fort Frederick regarding the sinking of the Zepaard

Development of pantiles

Captain Francis Evatt was also a Government Commissioner at Port Elizabeth from 1820 to 1850 and a magistrate from 1825 to 1850. His importance in the context of architecture is that he designed roofing tiles, known as Port Elizabeth pantiles, in 1826. These were manufactured by James Hancock and became quite widely used in the Eastern Cape for several years, even being exported as far as Cape Town. Per Lewcock, the commandant, also gave ‘an account of the expenses attending the transport of the Wooden Houses from here (England) to Bathurst‘. Evatt drew the authorities attention to the fact that the cost of transport of the imported prefabricated buildings was prohibitive thereby precluding their sale and use as public offices. Instead they were used in Port Elizabeth itself. It is probably one of these prefabricated buildings which initially served as the Rev Francis McCleland’s accommodation until no 7 was constructed in 1827. (Lewcock 1963:191). (Lewcock 1963:318)

At swords drawn
An incident in mid 1826, arose between the recently-appointed clergyman of St Mary’s Church, Rev Francis McCleland and Captain Francis Evatt. By way of background, the Rev Francis McCleland had not endeared himself to the settlers at the Cape due to his being quick to take umbrage. Possibly also contributing to this altercation, was his dyspeptic nature. As regards Evatt’s culpability, one must bear in mind that it was his (Evatt’s) fund-raising efforts that had culminated in the erection of St Mary’s Church. As such, he obviously felt a proprietary bond to the project. Even though it was due to his singular efforts that McCleland was appointed, this appointee was one so unlike himself in demeanour. While it is not recorded anywhere, the incident narrated below indicates that his arrival was not well received by the Church Committee.

The incident involved a complaint by Captain Evatt during April and May 1826. At issue was an allegation by Evatt that McCleland had travelled to Grahamstown without leave and hence neglected his Church Services. On the 16th May 1826, letters of outrage passed between them.

Fort Frederick

In response, Mr John Anthony Chabaud, the Secretary of the Church Committee – either having read or heard about the letter that Captain Evatt had written, wrote to the Government stating: “[I] do declare the subject matter of that complaint or charge to be without foundation”. The Church Committee also passed a resolution requesting Rev. McCleland to accept the thanks of the Committee for general good conduct and usefulness as Chaplain. Copies of these resolutions were then forwarded to the Government with a letter from Chabaud.

Evatt retaliated by claiming that the Church Meetings are called “whenever they see fit without reference to him and he is met with marked disrespect”. Bickering and misunderstanding continued from both sides – the Church Council and Capt. Evatt  – with Chabaud being the intermediary, attempting to pacify all parties. However, later on, he and McCleland then quarrelled. Chabaud responded by stating, “I hope that you are not in any way interested or connected with him or his descendants for he [McCleland] is a most unamicable character”. Chabaud then continued to sully McCleland’s character even further. “Even on the voyage out he evinced a most quarrelsome, mischief-making disposition and is in constant hot water with one and another in Port Elizabeth after settling here”.

Fort Frederick dated 12 March 1905

Remember that these gripes are being made about McCleland’s character flaws barely six months after his arrival in Port Elizabeth.

At this point Chabaud gets to the nub of one of his criticisms of McCleland’s character. “There is barely a door open to him in the village [Port Elizabeth] through his having quarrelled with everyone but [worst are] the malicious and scandalous reports he sets in motion regarding a young married lady [who had visited Chabaud]”. McCleland “makes an attempt to blast the character and prospects of a beautiful but unfortunate young female and says some terrible things, which are worse, coming from a clergyman”.

In order to smooth things over, Capt. Evatt decided to host a dinner party to which the most prominent people of the village were invited. The morning before this function took place, Rev. McCleland and his wife Elizabeth invited Mrs Chabaud – who is now unwittingly hauled into the fray – to No. 7 Castle Hill. During this meeting, they say the most insulting things about her guest, the young lady. They refuse to go to the dinner if “that lady is to be there”. They “suggest [that] Mr Chabaud inspan his cart and send her home immediately or their house would get a bad name, and many worse things”.

St Mary’s Church in 1876

The poor woman returned home very agitated and informed her husband, Mr Chabaud, what had transpired. Incensed, Mr Chabaud wrote to Francis McCleland for an explanation. Nothing is recorded as to whether a reply was forthcoming.

According to Chabaud, when McCleland is confronted, he “hedges and prevaricates and even, in a terrible fright, says he is happy to see her at his house (No. 7)”. This did not prevent him from continuing the slander causing tensions to escalate until Mr Chabaud deliberately decided to insult Francis in the expectation that McCleland would either prove his statements or retract them.

Then on 12th August 1826, McCleland drafts a letter to the District Secretary, Roselt, in which he details a confrontation between Chabaud and himself, during which he is called a slanderer and a pest of society. Furthermore, he also requests him to intervene.

A watercolour depicting Number 7 Castle Hill on the top right hand side of the hill

As can be imagined, the quarrel caused a great sensation in the small community for most of the leading members were involved, either directly or as witnesses. Mr Chabaud’s witnesses are Capt. Evatt, Mr. Dawson, Capt. Sheaffe and Mrs. Chabaud. Roselt, the District Secretary, was undecided who should hear this case. Ultimately, it was heard before the Court of the Landdrost and Heemraden on the 3rd November 1826. After lengthy evidence from both sides, Mr Chabaud was fined RxD300 and costs. Furthermore in the verdict Mr Chabaud was considered a “peaceably disposed person and not a quarrelsome character”.

It was then admitted that “since Mr McCleland had taken up his residence in Port Elizabeth, broils and dissensions have become common”. Mr Chabaud in evidence stated at length that “this Revd. Divine [was] sent by our Maternal Government to preach in this remote corner of her dominion Peace and Goodwill to all men”. He continued by mentioning his own upright character in contrast to the irreligious behaviour of McCleland.

Evatt’s protests about revenues
In 1826, Evatt was in full flight again. On this occasion he was protesting against the revenues of Port Elizabeth being used by Uitenhage for their benefit rather than for the legitimate development of the port.

Campaign against slavery
One of Captain Francis Evatt’s numerous hallmarks was that as a staunch abolitionist. In his informative book, “Algoa Bay in the Age of Sail (1488 to 1917) – A Maritime History, Colin Urquhart records that “in 1823, Captain Francis Evatt, decided to take action under the Act against a ship’s captain whom he suspected of clandestinely importing two child slaves into the colony. He had noticed the captain of the Cape-owned schooner Stedcombe boarding the vessel in Algoa Bay accompanied by a small black boy. On further investigation, he learnt that the boy belonged to a Mr. Chabaud and that there was also a nine-year-old girl aboard whom the captain had reportedly purchased in Mozambique. Captain Evatt, tried in vain, at his own expense to have those involved prosecuted, going so far as to declare the schooner a ‘prize of war’ and sent her to Cape Town where he hoped the Admiralty Court would take action. Amid some embarrassment, the court declined, and the two children were duly handed over to the vessel’s owner, Nesbit & Co, for whom they became ‘domestic servants in a state of freedom”.

“It is believed that Evatt’s actions and efforts over the next four years through the Royal Commission of Enquiry to establish why no action was taken and to recover his expenses (all £135s’ worth), went some way to ending the illegal importation of slaves to the Colony. It most certainly marked Port Elizabeth as a port which slave traders would want to avoid.”

Fortifications during the 6th Frontier War [1835-36]
In the week subsequent to the invasion by the Xhosa hordes during the 6th Frontier War, the population of Port Elizabeth was panic stricken. In consternation due to the ease with which the Xhosa warriors had penetrated as far as Bushman’s River, the town’s inhabitants daily expected them to march on Port Elizabeth.  Many of the roads leading from the east to Port Elizabeth were crowded with the livestock being driven by the petrified farmers towards the Zwartkops River. Amongst them was a Lt Daniel who owned a flock of 4,000 sheep which successful reached the Zwartkops without a loss.

Meanwhile the Resident Commandant of Fort Frederick, Captain Francis Evatt and Major Michell were feverishly organising a defence of the town. Even the boat owner, John Owen Smith, had offered his services in the protection of the town. The defence involved all male inhabitants, white and black, numbering about three hundred who were enrolled as one corps, and divided into eight sections. Over each was a captain, and for each section a piece of ordnance was allocated. These 8 guns were arrayed across the top of the hill from Fort Frederick to Hartman’s house with the last piece being at the toll within sight of Hyman’s Kloof. Between the artillery pieces a barricade of wagons were entrenched. Many of these wagons had only recently reached the town after fleeing with the family and their livestock.

Neighbours to Rev. Francis McCleland
Evatt’s first home in Port Elizabeth was located on the corner of Baakens Street and Military Road. According to a deed dated 31st December 1835, a plot bounded by Castle Hill, Daly Street and Prospect Hill was granted to Captain Evatt on condition that a substantial house be built thereon within 18 months. If these conditions were met, the house must have been erected before mid-1837. Support for the claim that Evatt did actually live there is found in accounts of travellers who visited him and remarked on the fine view of the Bay obtainable from the garden of his house. The plan shows a 10-feet wide apssage separating the plots belonging to No. 7 and Captain Evatt. The deed is signed by Col. John Mitchell of Mitchell’s Pass fame and Sir Benjamin D’Urban himself.

Later life
According to his Death Notice, Francis Evatt married Elisabeth Frederica Petronella Kirsten on 2nd September 1794 but got divorced during September 1823 whilst living in Port Elizabeth. On 2nd December 1831, Evatt married a widow, Anna de la Harpe, of Uitenhage. The ceremony was performed by the Colonial Chaplain, Rev. Francis McCleland at the Residency. Erroneously, St. Mary’s register records the marital status of the bridegroom as bachelor.

In his book, Excursions in Southern Africa, Lieut.-Colonel Napier mentions his visit to a clearly ailing Evatt as follows: “I went to pay my respects to the Commandant at Port Elizabeth, and a more extraordinary-looking old gentleman you scarcely ever beheld. He was seated on an open terrace overlooking the Bay. His dress consisted of a shocking bad old straw hat, an old blue frock coat with large scales, a shooting waistcoat, corduroy trousers, and a pair of shoes well down at the heel. He appeared upwards of seventy years of age, was very corpulent and apologised for not rising to receive me owing to his infirmities, which apology was, of course, readily accepted. This old veteran has filled the post he now occupies for thirty-three years”.

Captain Francis Evatt died on 21st March 1850 aged 80. He was buried with full military honours due to his rank by the Rev. A. Robson in the Russell Road Cemetery. Evatt owned various farms and lots of land during his life including Draaifontein from 1815 to 1819 and a Lot at the top of Prospect Hill from 1835 to 1849. Yet when he died, he owned no land and was living in a cottage at the bottom of Military Road.

Tombstone of Francis Evatt now in the porch of St Mary’s Church

When Evatt died, it was said that “if not the founder of the town, at least present at its origin, and for some time so important a personage in it, that the history of his doings was the history of Port Elizabeth – it had no separate existence apart from him.”

Even though Francis Evatt was originally buried in the Congregational Cemetery in Russell Road, due to the disreputable condition and vandalism of the cemetery, his remains were later exhumed and re-interred at the present spot next to the Fort’s north wall. In front of Fort Frederick, Port Elizabeth’s oldest building, visitors will find the gravestone of Captain Francis Evatt. This is a reproduction of the original tombstone at St Mary’s and is a fitting tribute to Captain Evatt as he commanded Fort Frederick from 1817 to 1848. The original slate tombstone is on the porch of St Mary’s Church.

The local newspaper at the time published the following obituary:
Commandant Evatt is no more. He departed this life on the afternoon of Thursday last, after a brief illness or rather the decay of nature, which had long been protracted in his case, at last seemed, as his days were nearly numbered, to hurry through the different stages to final dissolution. The late Commandant was, if not the founder of the town, at least present at its origin, and for some time so important a personage in it, that he embodied in himself for a considerable period all its consequence – the history of his doings was the history of Port Elizabeth – it had no separate entity from him.

Grave of Captain Francis Evatt

When a British population saw fit to make a home, it was not to be expected that his dominion was for a lifetime to be exerted; but long after the authority had passed from the grasp of the deceased, he was regarded with a feeling near akin to that of reverence for a founder. This feeling will follow [the] deceased to the tomb. It will betake itself there as a visitor to his mortal remains, that once more it may hold a kind of converse with the memory of [the] deceased. And in this exercise, it will be altogether charitable in its disposition……………………………………

His tombstone on St. Mary’s porch, bears the following epitaph:

Epitaph on Evatt’s tombstone

His wife, Anna Evatt, died in 1881 in Graaff-Reinet, aged 87 years.

Additional information:

Title Deeds to Draaifontein Property

Draaifontein’s original title deeds – The complete diagram
Confirmation on the Title Deed regarding Capt. Francis Evatt’s ownership as inscribed by the Surveyor General

Field cornet

The term later came to denote a military rank equivalent to that of a lieutenant in the Boer armies as well as in the South African Army between 1960 and 1968. A second lieutenant was referred to as an assistant field cornet. The term field cornet replaced the word adjutant in the commando organisation in 1968.


Henry Evatt was the only son of Francis. He died in Port Elizabeth aged 32 on the 2nd January 1826. He was a clerk to the Government Resident and owned the farm Klaas Niemand’s River and prior to that Kentish Plain. Evatt’s other child was a daughter, Margaret, who died in England two years after her father.

Life prior to Port Elizabeth
This is a verbatim copy of a report in the Port Elizabeth Mercury newspaper dated 25th March 1850:
Our obituary of today records the death of one of the oldest inhabitants of the place. Commandant EVATT departed this life, after a gradual decay of nature, on the afternoon of Thursday last. His exact age is not known, but he is supposed to have been about 87 years. [77 per M. Harradine] Several friends kindly visited him during his illness, and among the many attentions paid him, we would especially notice those of Capt. BROWN, our present Commandant, and the Reverend Mr. ROBSON [of Union Chapel]. His remains were interred in the burial place in connection with Union Chapel on last Friday afternoon, and were followed by a number of the inhabitants, as well as by all the military stationed here. We take over the following account of his services from the Herald.

The Deceased, Commandant EVATT, after retiring from the 2nd Dragoon Guards, about the year 1790, in order to devote himself to agricultural pursuits in Midlothian, was, on the breaking out of the Irish Rebellion in 1794, called upon by the county to accept the situation of Adjutant and Riding Master of a regiment of Fencibles, which he did, accompanying the same to Ireland. Here he was soon put in command of a Troop of Dragoons stationed in the County of Meath, where he was chiefly instrumental in keeping the rebellion in check by unwearied and increasing exertion in maintaining constant night patrols &c. For this service the county presented him with a sword, and £2000 to purchase him a commission in the service – which offer , as likewise a similar offer from a Colonel BURROWS of Summer Hill, were both respectfully declined. He continued therefore simply in command of different posts in Ireland, till, in the year 1798, he was severely wounded at the Battle of Ross, and at nearly the same time lost his father, who, in the same rebellion, was killed at the fight of Saintfield – his horse being killed under him. In 1799 his regiment was disbanded and in 1800 he was then appointed to the Adjutancy, and as Riding Master to the 21st Light Dragoons, at the recommendation of General GWYER, and in 1806 he accompanied his regiment to the Cape. He continued in this regiment until 1808, when he volunteered to accompany a squadron of the 6th Dragoon Guards to South America, with which squadron he served at the unfortunate affair of Buenos Ayres, where deceased was severely wounded in both knees. In the year 1809 he again returned to the Cape with a squadron of his former Regiment, the 21st Light Dragoons, with which he was at once sent by His Excellency, Lord CALEDON, to take command on the Eastern Frontier, which position he held for 15 months. For his services during these months he received the thanks and approbation of his superiors. In 1812 it seemed again necessary to His Excellency General Sir John CRADOCK to form a garrison company for the protection of the Uitenhage district, to which command deceased was then appointed, till the year 1815, when he was appointed Resident Commandant of this station, all the duties of which he continued to discharge till about 2 years ago, when he was considered as superannuated, and retired.


Port Elizabeth: A Social Chronicle to the end of 1945 by Margaret Harradine (1996, E H Walton Packaging Pty Ltd, Port Elizabeth)


Port Elizabeth in Bygone Days by J.J. Redgrave (1947, Rustica Press)



Looking Back, Vol IX No 4 (December 1969) pages 110 – 111

Panorama of Port Elizabeth by Eleanor K. Lorimer (1971, A.A. Balkema, Cape Town)

Algoa Bay in the Age of Sail 1488-1917A Maritime History by Colin Urquhart (2007, Bluecliff Publishing, Port Elizabeth)

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