Port Elizabeth of Yore: John Centlivres Chase & Early PE

Often spoken of as “the father of the Eastern Cape,” friend and son-in-law of Frederik Korsten, one of Baillie’s Party aboard the Chapman, M.L.A, John Centlivres Chase was one of the prominent and influential settlers of the infant town. 

Despite setting foot initially at Port Elizabeth, Chase’s odyssey would not commence there, but its terminus and swansong would be. 

Main picture: John Centlivres Chase

Early Days

It is foolish to make any hard and fast predictions about the expected exigencies and vagaries of the road less travelled, but probably Chase was neither so optimistic nor unrealistic that he did not expect pain and anguish on that journey. As a married man of twenty-four years of age, he could not foresee that heartache would commence before arrival at Algoa Bay. En route while in the Bay of Biscay, tragedy struck the young family. Their infant daughter, Louisa, died. Chase and his wife at 20 year old, Arabella Broom Elliott, must have been devastated. This must have been their first tragedy and their first child.

What conditions were like for the settlers on board ship

What conditions were like for the settlers on board ship

Their voyage had commenced on 3rd December 1819 from Gravesend, Kent and would terminate on the 10th April 1820 when the Chapman sailed into Algoa Bay. There to greet them was the ship H.M.S. Menai and its captain, Fairfax Moresby.

John C. Chase, son of George Chase and his wife, Elizabeth Matilda Centlivres, became secretary to a British Emigration Society in 1819. He was granted land near Uitenhage and between the two Kleinemonde rivers (east of Port Alfred), but his efforts at farming were not successful. He would have to change careers, so he joined the Cape Civil Service as accountant of Albany, stationed at Grahamstown, in 1825. From December 1826, he was vendue-master for the Albany District until the post was abolished at the end of 1827. A vendue master is someone who is authorized to sell any property by vendue. In modern day parlance, he would have been classified as an auctioneer.

Interlude in Cape Town

Tragedy struck again in the Chase household. This time it was his wife at the tender age of 30 while at the Kowie in August 1830. John then elected to settle Cape Town where he was promoted to a senior position in the customs department. In 1834, he was also appointed as a special justice under the Slave Emancipation Act. Chase left the public service in 1835 and became a leading figure at the commercial exchange in Cape Town.

Early view of Port Elizabeth

Early view of Port Elizabeth

Back to the Eastern Cape

In 1837, Chase returned to the Eastern Cape and was admitted as a Notary Public in that same year.

Initially requiring accommodation in Port Elizabeth, in 1837 he was instrumental in building a house in Market Square which was later converted into the Phoenix Hotel by Edwin Henry Salmond.

Here John remarried, his second wife, Maria Johanna Charlotta, being the widow of Commissary-General Damant and the only daughter of Frederik Korsten of Cradock Place. This was probably his entrée to become a partner in the whaling and sheep farming business of Frederik Korsten, near Port Elizabeth. Cradock Place then became the family home, probably on Frederik Korsten’s death on 16th June 1839. As a notary and merchant, he was a leading citizen of Port Elizabeth for the next ten years.

Cradock Place

Cradock Place

The Chases had four more children, one of whom, George Chase, was the Collector of Customs at Port Elizabeth. His home called “Glamis” was in Western Road. All the Damant and Chase children were brought up at Cradock Place as one family and were not allowed to discriminate based upon the actual relationship between them. Frederik Korsten Damant, as the eldest son of Maria and grandson of Frederik Korsten, was heir to Cradock Place, and twelve of his fourteen children were born there.

Cradock Place

Cradock Place

Upon coming of age, he was prevailed upon by his mother and stepfather, John Centlivres Chase, to renounce his right to inherit Cradock Place. Chase’s logic was that the Cradock Place property should be sold and the proceeds divided equally between the three families as this would be more equitable. George willingly agreed to accept this proposal. Consequently, the beautiful Cradock Place with all its historical associations would pass out of the hands of the Chase family.

Sir Henry Young

Sir Henry Young

This idyll would continue until Sir Henry Young was appointed to the Lieutenant Governorship of Grahamstown in 1847. In that year, Chase would again join the civil service, this time as secretary for the Eastern Province. When his post was abolished the following year, he became civil commissioner and resident magistrate of the new division of Albert, at Burgersdorp. His efforts led to the founding of Aliwal North in May 1849. From that year to his retirement in 1863, he was civil commissioner and resident magistrate at Uitenhage.

Cartography & exploration

In May 1831, he became a member of the South African Institution, the first general scientific society in southern Africa. It is fairly common knowledge that John Chase was secretary of the Society for Exploring Central Africa but it was less well known was his contribution to cartographical knowledge.

In June 1825 Chase and another settler, James Collins, undertook one of the earliest trading expeditions to Klaarwater (Griquatown), the London Missionary Society’s station beyond the Orange River. This journey seems to have given rise to his insatiable curiosity relating to the geography and cartography of southern Africa. From that time, he actively collected information from all available sources on the exploration of the subcontinent, though he did not participate in further exploratory travels himself. Thus in 1828 he obtained, via H.F. Fynn, the papers of Dr. Alexander Cowie and the merchant Benjamin Green, who had died during their return from a trading expedition to Delagoa Bay. He also obtained the journal of two traders, Robert Scoon and William McLuckie. They were the first colonists to visit the Matabele Chief Mzilikazi during their journey from Griqualand West to Mozambique in June to August 1829. His paper on their journey was published in the South African Quarterly Journal (Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 402-407) in 1830. At this time, Chase was collecting information on all travels into the interior undertaken from the Cape of Good Hope.

Cradock Place

Cradock Place

A copy of his sketch map for that work was sent to Viscount Goderich in London in February 1831. The information on this map was included, without Chase’s permission, in a map of South Africa published in London in 1834 by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and thereafter also used by others. Chase objected strongly to this plagiarism. Meanwhile his notes on these travels were published under the title “An account of the progress of geographical discovery in the African continent made from the Cape of Good Hope” in the South African Quarterly Journal. He also compiled a Map of the eastern frontier of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, which was published by John Arrowsmith in London in October 1836. It included statistical notes on the colony for 1833. A copy of the second edition (1838) of this rare map was donated to the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, in 1899. He submitted to the government a sketch of the mouth of the Great Fish River in 1844, a sketch of the mouth of the Buffalo River in 1846, and a plan of the harbour of Algoa Bay in 1868.

Cradock Place

Cradock Place

Chase was elected a member of the council of the South African Literary and Scientific Institution in July 1833. He was joint secretary of the Institution from 1835 to 1838, and a member of its Statistical Committee. He was also involved in founding the Cape of Good Hope Association for the Exploration of Central Africa in Cape Town in 1833, by members of the South African Literary and Scientific Institution, to organise and finance an expedition, led by the zoologist Dr. Andrew Smith, to explore the interior of southern Africa. Chase was a member of the provisional committee charged with establishing the association, and was joint secretary of the Association during its early years. He was also secretary of the committee that drew up the instructions for the expedition in June 1834, and was re-elected as a member of the Association’s new management committee in 1836. He remained a member of the committee to about 1848.

Already in September 1833, he had produced a map of the whole of southern Africa up to the equator, for the use of the expedition. It was up to date and showed the routes of many former travellers, areas about which nothing was known, including most of present Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Lesotho, were blacked out.

Plan of Cradock Place

Chase as author

In 1843, he published an important historical work in Grahamstown and Cape Town: The Natal papers; a reprint of all notices and public documents connected with that territory, including a description of the country and a history of events from its discovery in 1488…. Another work of his, published in London the same year, was The Cape of Good Hope and the Eastern Province of Algoa Bay…, which was edited in London to support an emigration scheme. The map accompanying this work showed the routes of several explorers, including that of Piet Retief to Dingane’s Kraal. Curiously, none of Chase’s maps depicts any of the exploratory travels of Dr. Andrew Smith, and it seems that the two did not see eye to eye.

Cradock Place

Cradock Place

In 1869, he contributed an account of the history of the Cape between 1820 and 1868 to a book by Alexander Wilmot and himself, History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope.

The Final Years

After his retirement, he was elected as the member for Port Elizabeth of the Cape legislative assembly (1864-1865), and then a member of the Cape legislative council for the Eastern Divisions (1866-1875). He was a leading advocate for a separate government in the Eastern Cape.

Public affairs made insistent calls on Chase and he felt duty bound to respond to them. Together with Paterson, Fleming and Godlonton, they vociferously advocated independence for the Eastern Cape fearing that the interests of the Western Cape would take precedence in any decision making. Once diamonds were discovered at Kimberley, these fears evaporated and the movement collapsed.

1885 Cradock Place photo from Panorama of Port Elizabeth by E.K.Lorimer

1885 Cradock Place photo from Panorama of Port Elizabeth by E.K.Lorimer

As a member of the Legislative Assembly, he rendered excellent service to Port Elizabeth and the Eastern Province in general. His volumes of history and occasional articles to the Press from his pen, kept the people informed of the steady progress that the Province was making in spite of initial failures and experiments.

John Centlivres Chase passed away at Cradock Place on 13th December 1877, his death being hastened by the shock of an accident in which his wife, Maria, and himself were thrown out of a carriage. 

Sources

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/SOUTH-AFRICA-IMMIGRANTS-BRITISH/2004-01/1073507887

http://www.s2a3.org.za/bio/Biograph_final.php?serial=488

Port Elizabeth: A Social Chronicle to the end of 1945 by Margaret Harradine (1996, E H Walton Packaging Pty Ltd, Port Elizabeth)

Port Elizabeth in Bygone Days by J.J. Redgrave (1947, Rustica Press)

John Centlivres Chase, geographer and cartographer by P.R. Kirby (1968,  Africana Notes and News, 1968, Vol. 18, pp. 135-161)


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